Geological Methods

geological map

Geological methods rely on the identification of rocks and minerals and an understanding of the environment in which they formed. These surveys aim to find what rock types occur at or close to the surface and how these rock types are related to each other i.e. their boundaries, ages, and structure.

Based on known "environments for mineralisation" or models for mineralisation, regional geological surveys can be used to define smaller areas in which more detailed studies can be undertaken.

A geological survey can be undertaken using a number of methods depending on the size of a region and the amount of information that is required.

Remote Sensing-some geological mapping can be done using satellite remote sensing methods. While most of these methods rely on geophysical rather than pure geological data, the use of this method can give broad scale views of surface geological structures such as folding, faulting, igneous intrusions etc.

Airphoto interpretation-this can give a broad overview of the geological relationships of an area with no detailed knowledge of the mineral composition or fabric of the rocks.

Outcrop surveys-this is normally achieved by geologists driving along roads and walking traverses along creeks and rivers mapping the outcropping rock types. This can give a regional view of the rock types and their mineral content and fabric, but often no clear understanding of the relationships between rock layers (unless outcrop is exceptional).

Geology interpretation surveys-these are more detailed outcrop surveys where geological boundaries are established and interpreted in a small area.

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